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Kaid Benfield’s Blog

Florida county links density & conservation to restrict mining, protect water supply

Kaid Benfield

Posted November 3, 2009

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Lee County, Florida (Fort Myers) is moving forward with an innovative plan to use clustered, dense development instead of large-lot zoning to protect its water supply.  Under current zoning the southeastern portion of the Gulf coast county has been threatened by the spread of both limerock mining and large-lot "ranchettes" in an 83,000-acre "groundwater resource area" that supplies 80 percent of the county's potable water.  Over time the new plan will allow the restoration of a substantial portion of the area's wetlands, while still allowing mining in a restricted zone for 20 years and allowing the same amount of housing development in a more clustered form.

Currently the area features isolated wetlands surrounded by citrus groves, with mining in the northwest corner just beyond this image:

  isolated wetlands and citrus groves (courtesy of Dover Kohl & Partners) 

In 1990, the county designated the region a "density reduction/groundwater resource area."  Seemed like a good idea at the time, no doubt, when prevailing environmental thinking was that restricting density was good for watersheds.  That theory has been debunked, of course, since we now know that for a given number of households more concentrated development actually does a much better job of protecting water.  Moreover, under the 5- and 10-acre lots permitted by the old plan, development could occupy all of the currently agricultural land in the area, precluding recovery of the wetlands:

  the old zoning allows wetlands to be surrounded by sprawl (courtesy of Dover Kohl & Partners)   

The area was once 86% covered by wetlands, about half of which have since been lost.  The new plan, which still must pass state review, will allow the same number of homes to be built but restrict them to a concentrated area, preserving the rest for agriculture and wetland restoration: 

  concentrated development will allow wetland recovery and sustained agriculture (courtesy of Dover Kohl & Partners) 

Mining interests and other landowners in the conservation area will be compensated by selling their development rights to builders who want to pursue compact development in the development zone.  The new plan was given the go-ahead by county commissioners last week.

The plan has been opposed by the mining interests, but they are not shut out of the new scheme.  While their rights will be restricted to a designated zone, there is room for limited expansion and enough rock in the zone to supply the companies for 20 years.  The accommodation "strikes the right balance," as noted by the Fort Myers News-Press in an editorial.

On the left below is a rendering of the area as it exists now, with mines shown in blue.  On the right is a rendering of how the area might recover under the new plan's conservation features:

  the area currently (courtesy of Dover Kohl & Partners)  projected wetlands restoration (courtesy of Dover Kohl & Partners) 

Density without conservation fails to live up to its smart growth promise.  Conservation without density is an illusion doomed to fail.  Lee County shows how to link the two.

The plan was developed by Dover Kohl & Partners.  Read all about it here.

Kaid Benfield writes (almost) daily about community, development, and the environment.  For more posts, see his blog's home page. 


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Steve MouzonNov 3 2009 01:39 PM

Kaid, thanks for blogging on this! One other thing to consider... agriculture tightly around communities must be good-neighbor agriculture. The industrial food chain completely fails to deliver, with crop-dusters, CAFOs fouling the water, and industrial-size hog farms nobody wants to live 20 miles downwind of. And industrial ag, while very man-hour efficient, is very acre-inefficient.
Bio-intensive agriculture, OTOH, is very acre-efficient, and is also a good neighbor in many ways, making it able to snuggle right up to the edge of a village like it's done in Europe and elsewhere for many centuries.
Bottom line: what Dover-Kohl is illustrating here has another huge benefit: you can take the land out of the industrial food chain, build the community, then put only PART of the land into bio-intensive agriculture (saving the rest for forests, parks, etc.) and still feed ALL of the people that live in the community. That's the ultimate food security. We discovered this first at DPZ's Southlands project south of Vancouver, and have applied these ideas at DPZ's Sky in the Florida panhandle, and also at Schooner Bay in the Bahamas. Sky was already set up to do this a couple years before; we just didn't realize how well it could work until Southlands.
Two self-promotional things if you'll allow it: I don't work for DPZ; I was only a consultant on these projects. And you can find info on Nourishable Places here:
It's a part of the Original Green, which proposes nourishability as an essential part of real sustainability.

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